Son of Czar Alexei Mikhailovich, Feodor
Alexeevich was born on April 30, 1661. Officially declared heir to the throne on
September 1, 1674, at the age of 12, he was consecrated
Czar in the Dormition Cathedral of the Kremlin
after the death of his father.
He received an excellent education for his time, knowing Latin well, reading
and speaking Polish fluently, and writing poetry. Physically unhealthy, he also
had a weak character. During the six years of his reign, he was unable to rule
with any independence. Power was concentrated in the hands of his maternal
relatives, the Miloslavskii boyars. However, reforms in the organization of the
army and state, begun under his grandfather and father, continued during his
reign. A national consensus conducted in 1678 and in 1682 ended
mestnichestvo, a practice whereby boyars and
gentry were appointed to particular posts on the basis of their ancestors'
services. The major foreign policy success of his reign was halting Ottoman
expansion into the Ukraine.
Feodor Alexeevich married twice and had one child that died in infancy. He
died on April 27, 1682, without leaving arrangements for the succession, and was
buried in the Archangel Cathedral of the Kremlin.
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©Copyright 1999, The Moscow Kremlin Museums and other international
Text compiled by Alexei K. Levykin
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